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Table 4 Measures of self-efficacy, attitude/beliefs and knowledge of FIP in intervention groups before and 6 months after receiving educational intervention*

From: An educational intervention for medical students to improve self-efficacy in firearm injury prevention counseling

  Control (N = 22) Intervention (N = 43) Comparison of diff’s
Pre 6mo Diff Paired p-value Pre 6mo Diff Paired p-value p-value
1.I feel ready to counsel patients about firearm injury prevention     0.745     <  0.001 0.022
 Mean (SD) 3.0 (1.1) 3.1 (1.1) 0.1 (1.1)   3.0 (1.1) 3.9 (0.7) 0.9 (1.3)  
2. I am confident I can provide appropriate advice and resources to patients about firearm safety     0.115     <  0.001 0.105
 Mean (SD) 2.6 (1.0) 2.9 (1.1) 0.3 (0.9)   2.9 (1.0) 3.6 (0.7) 0.7 (0.9)  
3. There is not enough time in a doctor visit to talk about injury risk and prevention with a patient     0.182     0.260 0.415
 Mean (SD) 2.8 (1.2) 3.3 (1.1) 0.5 (1.8)   2.9 (0.9) 3.1 (0.9) 0.2 (1.1)  
4. Asking patients about firearms is a violation of privacy and can damage the patient-doctor relationship     0.212     0.851 0.216
 Mean (SD) 1.7 (0.8) 1.9 (0.8) 0.2 (0.8)   1.8 (0.6) 1.7 (0.6) −0.0 (0.7)  
5. Physicians should be trained to provide firearm safety counseling     0.107     0.004 0.913
 Mean (SD) 3.8 (0.9) 4.2 (0.8) 0.3 (1.1)   3.8 (0.7) 4.1 (0.6) 0.4 (0.8)  
6. Gun violence should be considered a public health issue     0.020     0.660 0.052
 Mean (SD) 4.7 (0.5) 4.5 (0.8) −0.3 (0.5)   4.4 (0.6) 4.5 (0.7) 0.0 (0.7)  
7. It is the physician’s role to counsel and advise about firearm safety and prevention     0.212     0.196 0.857
 Mean (SD) 3.7 (0.8) 4.0 (0.6) 0.3 (0.9)   3.7 (0.9) 3.8 (0.8) 0.2 (0.8)  
8. Number of correct quiz responses     0.128     <  0.001 0.018
 Mean (SD) 2.9 (1.4) 3.2 (1.2) 0.4 (1.0)   2.9 (1.1) 4.1 (1.1) 1.3 (1.5)  
  1. * Questions 1–2 = self-efficacy, 3–7 = attitudes/beliefs, 8 = knowledge
  2. **All responses were scored using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree)