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Table 2 Comparison of driver characteristics over the six periods

From: Trends in benzodiazepine anxiolytics and z-hypnotics use among French drivers involved in road traffic crashes from 2005 to 2015: a responsibility case-control study

Variables Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6
n % n % n % n % n % n %
Tota 40,657   32,028   33,395   36,683   30,757   27,977  
Age *
≤ 24 years 10,113 24.9 7756 24.2 7360 22.0 8008 21.8 6393 20.8 5452 19.5
25–44 years 17,921 44.1 14,233 44.4 15,186 45.5 16,093 43.9 13,112 42.6 11,708 41.9
45–64 years 9929 24.4 7857 24.5 8614 25.8 9856 26.9 8671 28.2 8147 29.1
≥ 65 years 2694 6.6 2182 6.8 2235 6.7 2726 7.4 2581 8.4 2670 9.5
Gender*
Men 27,904 68.6 21,866 68.3 23,581 70.6 25,463 69.4 21,557 70.1 19,701 70.4
Women 12,753 31.4 10,162 31.7 9814 29.4 11,220 30.6 9200 29.9 8276 29.6
Socioeconomic category *
Professional driver 1383 3.4 900 2.8 984 2.9 1134 3.1 1128 3.7 1422 5.1
Farmer 212 0.5 174 0.5 166 0.5 224 0.6 228 0.7 235 0.8
Craftsman, shopkeeper, independant profession 1290 3.2 1150 3.6 1380 4.1 1668 4.5 1364 4.4 1204 4.3
High managerial and professional occupation 1518 3.7 1266 4.0 1789 5.4 1801 4.9 1553 5.0 1401 5.0
Middle manager, employee 10,954 26.9 8921 27.9 9709 29.1 10,425 28.4 8555 27.8 7394 26.4
Worker 6463 15.9 5424 16.9 5011 15.0 5365 14.6 4261 13.9 3603 12.9
Retired 3437 8.5 3012 9.4 3077 9.2 3624 9.9 3195 10.4 3153 11.3
Unemployed 1808 4.4 1213 3.8 1476 4.4 1692 4.6 1387 4.5 1288 4.6
Other/missing 9215 22.7 6799 21.2 7402 22.2 8125 22.1 6967 22.7 6424 23.0
Student 4377 10.8 3169 9.9 2401 7.2 2625 7.2 2119 6.9 1853 6.6
Injury severity *
Unhurt 10,365 25.5 8728 27.3 10,122 30.3 11,643 31.7 9625 31.3 8555 30.6
Killed 861 2.1 540 1.7 485 1.5 529 1.4 358 1.2 421 1.5
Seriously injured 14,856 36.5 11,008 34.4 9909 29.7 11,217 30.6 10,141 33.0 9675 34.6
Slightly injured 14,575 35.8 11,752 36.7 12,879 38.6 13,294 36.2 10,633 34.6 9326 33.3
Alcohol (g/l) *
<  0.5 32,207 79.2 26,275 82.0 26,946 80.7 29,994 81.8 25,690 83.5 23,517 84.1
[0.5–0.8[ 281 0.7 193 0.6 134 0.4 135 0.4 219 0.7 169 0.6
[0.8–1.2[ 379 0.9 332 1.0 264 0.8 349 1.0 324 1.1 271 1.0
[1.2–2.0[ 946 2.3 710 2.2 633 1.9 772 2.1 712 2.3 609 2.2
≥ 2.0 767 1.9 676 2.1 612 1.8 641 1.7 528 1.7 422 1.5
Missing 6077 15.0 3842 12.0 4806 14.4 4792 13.1 3284 10.7 2989 10.7
Day *
Monday – Friday 30,236 74.4 23,649 73.8 25,192 75.4 27,593 75.2 23,110 75.1 20,899 74.7
Saturday 5826 14.3 4739 14.8 4614 13.8 5135 14.0 4165 13.5 3764 13.5
Sunday 4595 11.3 3640 11.4 3589 10.7 3955 10.8 3482 11.3 3314 11.8
Time of day *
[5–10] 9084 22.3 7496 23.4 7918 23.7 8674 23.6 7397 24.0 7089 25.3
[11–13] 6352 15.6 5078 15.9 5208 15.6 5577 15.2 4783 15.6 4409 15.8
[14–19] 18,289 45.0 14,451 45.1 14,887 44.6 16,815 45.8 14,027 45.6 12,544 44.8
[20–22] 3962 9.7 2974 9.3 3220 9.6 3360 9.2 2720 8.8 2369 8.5
[23–1] 1879 4.6 1275 4.0 1420 4.3 1385 3.8 1122 3.6 944 3.4
[2–4] 1091 2.7 754 2.4 742 2.2 872 2.4 708 2.3 622 2.2
Vehicle type *
Bicycle 2185 5.4 1682 5.3 1851 5.5 1876 5.1 1752 5.7 1632 5.8
Scooter 5842 14.4 4257 13.3 3692 11.1 3510 9.6 2564 8.3 1938 6.9
Motorbike 5670 13.9 4788 14.9 6606 19.8 6814 18.6 5651 18.4 5152 18.4
Light vehicle 24,132 59.4 18,660 58.3 18,431 55.2 21,182 57.7 17,717 57.6 16,312 58.3
Commercial vehicle 1185 2.9 1365 4.3 1598 4.8 1820 5.0 1695 5.5 1653 5.9
Heavy goods vehicle 793 2.0 549 1.7 560 1.7 677 1.8 648 2.1 610 2.2
Other 850 2.1 727 2.3 657 2.0 804 2.2 730 2.4 680 2.4
Crash location *
Extra-urban 18,025 44.3 13,951 43.6 12,410 37.2 15,566 42.4 14,416 46.9 14,405 51.5
1–5000 inhabitants 4498 11.1 3254 10.2 2828 8.5 3505 9.6 3327 10.8 3110 11.1
5001–50,000 inhabitants 9854 24.2 8235 25.7 7073 21.2 7593 20.7 5602 18.2 4962 17.7
50,001–300,000 inhabitants 6757 16.6 5431 17.0 4806 14.4 4915 13.4 3365 10.9 3679 13.2
≥ 300,000 inhabitants 1523 3.7 1157 3.6 6278 18.8 5104 13.9 4047 13.2 1821 6.5
Responsible *
Yes 19,580 48.2 15,316 47.8 16,182 48.5 18,275 49.8 15,198 49.4 13,385 47.8
Level 2 prescription drugsǂ*
Yes 4655 11.4 3613 11.3 3816 11.4 4486 12.2 3465 11.3 3121 11.2
Level 3 prescription drugsǂ*
Yes 1116 2.7 866 2.7 850 2.5 1024 2.8 1013 3.3 890 3.2
Long-term chronic diseases *
Yes 3407 8.4 2826 8.8 3048 9.1 3656 10.0 3457 11.2 3278 11.7
  1. ǂ Risk level for driving impairment.
  2. * p < 0.0001 (Chi-squared test)