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Table 1 Biomechanical variables

From: Associations between biomechanical and clinical/anthropometrical factors and running-related injuries among recreational runners: a 52-week prospective cohort study

 Exposure [unit]Reference1 standard deviation below reference1 standard deviation above reference
n injuries (n total)Risk [%]n injuries (n total)Risk [%] (p)Risk difference [%] (95%CI)n injuries (n total)Risk [%] (p)Risk difference [%] (95%CI)
Movement(A) HADROM [°]65 (310)32.012 (66)27.7 (0.588)−4.3 (−20.0; 11.4)8 (66)19.3 (0.095)−12.7 (− 27.7; 2.2)
(B) HADVEL [°/s]64 (315)31.113 (61)32.6 (0.870)1.5 (−16.1; 19.0)7 (62)17.9 (0.094)−13.2 (−28.5; 2.2)
(C) HADTIM [%]64 (334)29.710 (48)32.2 (0.780)2.5 (−14.9; 19.8)11 (60)25.6 (0.624)−4.1 (−20.7; 14.4)
(D) KFROM [°]62 (343)28.212 (48)30.5 (0.796)−2.3 (−15.5; 20.1)11 (51)36.6 (0.401)8.4 (−11.2; 27.9)
(E) KFJMAX [°]58 (302)28.813 (74)24.3 (0.541)−4.5 (−19.0; 9.9)14 (66)38.1 (0.236)9.3 (−6.1; 24.7)
(F) KFVEL [°/s]56 (297)29.514 (68)27.2 (0.783)−2.3 (−18.4; 13.9)14 (71)32.8 (0.675)3.3 (−12.2; 18.9)
(G) KFTIM [%]68 (343)30.95 (37)18.1 (0.140)−12.8 (−29.9; 4.2)12 (62)27.8 (0.702)−3.1 (− 19.2; 12.9)
(H) REVROM [°]63 (309)30.810 (61)21.5 (0.272)−9.3 (−26.0; 7.3)12 (72)30.2 (0.930)−0.6 (−15.0; 13.7)
(J) REVVEL [°/s]58 (303)28.813 (66)28.6 (0.981)−0.2 (−16.9; 17.3)13 (67)34.2 (0.487)5.4 (−9.8; 20.6)
(K) REVTIM [%]55 (316)25.79 (52)28.1 (0.786)2.4 (−15.2; 20.0)21 (74)46.4 (0.033)*20.7 (1.3; 40.0)
(L) ADFROM [°]60 (333)27.310 (48)31.8 (0.610)4.5 (−12.7; 21.6)15 (61)38.9 (0.193)11.6 (−5.9; 29.1)
(M) ATD [°]58 (319)28.512 (66)24.7 (0.650)−3.8 (−20.2; 12.6)15 (57)40.3 (0.186)11.8 (−5.7; 29.4)
(N) ADFTIM [%]72 (355)30.64 (31)17.0 (0.115)−14.6 (−32.9; 3.7)9 (56)22.3 (0.244)−9.3 (−24.9; 6.3)
Strength [Nm/kg](O) HABMVC64 (310)30.511 (66)28.1 (0.793)−2.4 (− 20.2; 15.5)10 (72)23.3 (0.332)−7.2 (− 21.7; 7.3)
(P) HADMVC58 (306)29.416 (72)34.0 (0.634)4.6 (−14.5; 23.8)11 (70)21.8 (0.328)−7.6 (−22.8; 7.6)
(Q) KEMVC50 (297)25.322 (77)42.8 (0.065)17.5 (−1.0; 36.1)13 (74)29.9 (0.590)4.6 (−12.1; 21.4)
(R) KFMVC61 (322)29.012 (70)26.2 (0.741)−2.8 (−19.7; 14.0)12 (56)32.8 (0.645)3.8 (−12.5; 20.2)
(S) ROTMVC62 (311)31.79 (66)15.7 (0.065)−16.0 (−33.1; 1.0)12 (65)27.3 (0.600)−4.4 (−20.6; 11.9)
(T) TFMVC52 (300)27.411 (70)23.0 (0.608)−4.4 (− 21.4; 12.5)22 (78)40.9 (0.118)13.5 (−3.4; 30.3)
(U) TEMVC60 (316)29.714 (66)30.6 (0.925)0.9 (−18.9; 17.2)10 (62)26.0 (0.678)−3.7 (−21.3; 13.9)
(V) HAB:HAD57 (320)26.317 (62)43.6 (0.040)*17.3 (0.8; 33.7)11 (66)28.7 (0.774)2.4 (−14.0; 18.8)
(X) H:Q65 (332)27.87 (59)24.8 (0.666)−3.0 (−16.8; 10.7)13 (57)40.7 (0.156)12.9 (−4.9; 30.8)
(Y) TF:TE61 (312)29.811 (70)23.2 (0.436)−6.6 (−23.0; 9.9)12 (62)31.6 (0.820)1.8 (−13.7; 17.3)
  1. HADROM Hip adduction range of motion, HADVEL Hip adduction velocity, HADTIM Timing of maximal hip adduction, KFROM Knee flexion range of motion, KFJMAX Maximal joint excursion knee flexion, KFVEL Knee flexion velocity, KFTIM Timing of maximal knee flexion, REVROM Rear foot eversion range of motion, REVVEL Rear foot eversion velocity, REVTIM Timing of maximal rear foot eversion, ADFROM Ankle dorsal flexion range of motion, ATD Ankle touch down angle, ADFTIM Timing of maximal ankle dorsal flexion, HABMVC Hip abduction strength, HADMVC Hip adduction strength, KEMVC Knee extension strength, KFMVC Knee flexion strength, ROTMVC Trunk rotation strength, TFMVC Trunk flexion strength, TEMVC Trunk extension strength, HAB:HAD Hip abduction:adduction strength ratio, H:Q Hamstring:quadriceps strength ratio (knee flexion:extension), TF:TE Trunk flexion:extension strength ratio. * indicates p ≤ 0.05. Letters in parentheses (A-Y) indicate a corresponding Kaplan-Meier plot presented in the supplementary material (see Additional file 1)