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Table 1 Distribution of States by Specific Language of TBI Laws at Law Passage

From: Evaluating the effectiveness of traumatic brain injury state laws among high school athletes

TBI Law LanguageStatesaLawAtlas Dataset
n (%)
High School RIO Dataset
n (%)
Specific Language of TBI Laws Relating to What Category of Healthcare Provider Was Legally Allowed to Provide Clearance for an Injured Athlete to Return to Play
 Specified the Category of Healthcare Provider for RTP ClearanceAK, AL, AZ, CO, CT, DE, GA, HI, IA, ID, KS, LA, MA, ME, MN, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, RI, SC, TN, TX27 (52.9%)26 (53.1%)
 Physicians OnlyAL, DE, NY, OH, RI, TN, TX7 (25.9%)c7 (26.9%)c
 Multiple Categories of Healthcare ProvidersbAK, AZ, CO, CT, GA, HI, IA, ID, KS, LA, MA, ME, MN, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NM, NV, SC20 (74.1%)c19 (73.1%)c
 Did Not Specify the Category of Healthcare Provider for RTP ClearanceAR, CA, DC, FL, IL, IN, KY, MD, MI, MO, MT, ND, NH, OK, OR, PA, SD, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY24 (47.1%)23 (46.9%)
Specific Language of TBI Laws Relating to Who Was Required to Complete Education Regarding Concussion Signs and Symptoms
 Specified Education for Both Coaches and Parents/GuardiansAK, AL, AR, AZ, DE, FL, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MT, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY40 (78.4%)38 (77.6%)
 Specified Education for Either Coaches or Parents/GuardiansCA, CO, CT, DC, GA, MN, MO, MS, NE, NV, OR11 (21.6%)11 (22.4%)
State-Specific Year of TBI Law Passage
 2009OR, WA2 (3.9%)2 (4.1%)
 2010CT, ID, MA, NJ, NM, OK, RI, VA8 (15.7%)8 (16.3%)
 2011AK, AL, AZ, CA, CO, DC, DE, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, MD, ME, MN, MO, NC, ND, NE, NV, NY, PA, SD, TX, UT, VT, WY27 (52.9%)25 (51.0%)
 2012FL, HI, KY, MI, NH, OH, WI7 (13.7%)7 (14.3%)
 2013AR, GA, MT, SC, TN, WV6 (11.8%)6 (12.2%)
 2014MS1 (2.0%)1 (2.0%)
Total 51 (100.0%)49d(100.0%)
  1. Abbreviations: RTP Return to play, TBI Traumatic brain injury
  2. a Includes the District of Colombia. States captured in the High School RIO dataset are bolded
  3. b Includes categories such as physicians, nurses, physician’s assistants, athletic trainers, etc.
  4. c Proportion of total number of states that specified category healthcare provider for return to play clearance
  5. d States not captured in the High School RIO dataset include AK and WY