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Table 2 Estimated Changes in Concussion Rates by Time Period and Specific Language of TBI Laws, 2005/06–2017/18

From: Evaluating the effectiveness of traumatic brain injury state laws among high school athletes

Specific Language of TBI LawsAfter First Change PointAfter Second Change Point
Incidenta95%CIRecurrenta95%CIIncident vs. Recurrentb95%CIIncidenta95%CIRecurrenta95%CIIncident vs. Recurrentb95%CI
Overall1.85%*1.14, 2.56%1.12%*0.00, 2.26%− 0.61%− 1.24, 0.03%− 1.08%*− 1.43, − 0.72%− 0.62%− 1.40, 0.16%− 0.15%− 0.48, 0.19%
Specified Category of Healthcare Provider for RTP Clearance2.03%*0.86, 3.21%1.86%*0.68, 3.06%0.71%− 0.23, 1.66%− 0.78%*− 1.16, − 0.39%− 3.29%*− 5.57, − 0.96%− 1.84%*− 3.55, − 0.09%
Did Not Specify Category of Healthcare Provider for RTP Clearance8.28%*4.93, 11.75%5.77%*0.57, 11.24%− 2.31%− 7.46, 3.13%− 7.35%*− 10.02, − 4.59%− 5.54%*− 10.01, − 0.86%− 0.41%− 0.84, 0.03%
Specified Multiple Categories of Healthcare Providers for RTP Clearance2.77%*0.90, 4.68%3.21%*0.47, 6.02%2.33%− 0.20, 4.93%− 0.41%− 0.84, 0.02%− 4.51%− 9.00, 0.21%− 1.87%− 4.52, 0.85%
Specified Physicians Only for RTP Clearance− 0.91%*− 1.61, − 0.21%2.51%*0.06, 5.03%2.42%*0.39, 4.48%− 3.35%*− 6.21, − 0.41%− 4.25%*− 7.49, − 0.89%1.47%− 1.99, 5.05%
Specified Both Coaches and Parents/Guardian Education1.65%*0.87, 2.43%2.59%*0.26, 4.99%0.99%− 0.96, 2.97%− 1.15%*− 1.55, − 0.75%− 2.10%− 4.16, 0.01%0.02%− 0.36, 0.39%
Specified Either Coaches or Parents/Guardian Education2.21%*0.96, 3.47%8.57%*1.69, 15.92%4.93%− 0.22, 10.35%− 1.04%*− 1.71, − 0.38%− 6.20%*− 11.02, − 1.12%− 0.54%− 1.13, 0.05%
  1. Abbreviations: RTP Return to play, TBI Traumatic brain injury, CI Confidence interval
  2. * P < 0.05
  3. a Additional rate of change per standardized month
  4. b Difference in rate of change per standardized month relative to incident concussion rates