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Table 4 Hierarchical linear regression model examining effects of educational achievement on youth homicide rates after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and familial factors

From: Educational achievement and youth homicide mortality: a City-wide, neighborhood-based analysis

 Model 1Model 2Model 3
ß95% CITp-Valueß95% CITp-Valueß95% CITp-Value
Block 1 (R2 = 0.506)
 Race0.4745(0.3483, 0.6007)7.369< 0.0010.3311(0.1017, 0.5605)2.8290.0070.3333(0.1097, 0.5569)2.9200.005
Block 2 (R2 = 0.5264)
 Familial Poverty Rate    −0.0164(−0.4479, 0.4150)−0.0750.94−0.1712(− 0.6216, 0.2792)−0.7450.46
 Single-Parent Rate    0.2585(−0.1762, 0.6931)1.1650.250.2397(−0.2576, 0.7370)0.9450.35
Block 3 (R2 = 0.5679)
 Educational Achievement, 3rd Grade        −0.5082(−0.9674, − 0.0490)−2.1690.03
 Educational Achievement, 8th Grade        0.2747(−0.4172, 0.9666)0.7780.44