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Table 5 Summary of causal mediation analyses determined through non-parametric bootstrapping (1000 simulations per analysis). Direct and causal mediation effects of each independent variable through possible mediator variables are described in terms of effect on the primary outcome variable, neighborhood youth homicide mortality rate, controlling for other model variables. ADE: average direct effects; ACME: average causal mediation effects

From: Educational achievement and youth homicide mortality: a City-wide, neighborhood-based analysis

 Mediator1. Race 2. Familial Poverty Rate3. Single-Parent Rate4. Educational Achievement, 3rd Grade5. Educational Achievement, 8th Grade
Independent Variable ACMEADEACMEADEACMEADEACMEADEACMEADE
1. Race0.0130.333**0.0650.333**−0.0030.333**−0.0030.333**
2. Familial Poverty Rate−0.103−0.171− 0.103−0.1710.151*− 0.171−0.010− 0.171
3. Single-Parent Rate0.443**0.240−0.0790.2400.0090.240− 0.0940.240
4. Educational Achievement, 3rd Grade 0.007−0.508*0.053−0.508*−0.003− 0.508*0.071− 0.508*
5. Educational Achievement, 8th Grade −0.0390.2750.0150.275−0.1590.275−0.300*0.275
  1. **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05