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Table 3 Courts’ reasonable cause findings for issued temporary ERPOs

From: Extreme risk protection orders in King County, Washington: the epidemiology of dangerous behaviors and an intervention response

Reasonable Cause for temporary ERPO2 Risk to Self only
N= 29 (40%)
Risk to Others only
N= 19 (27%)
Risk to Self and Others
N= 24 (33%)
Total
N= 721
a. Violence and threats 28 (97%) 15 (79%) 19 (79%) 62 (86%)
b. Pattern of violence 8 (28%) 13 (68%) 13 (54%) 34 (47%)
c. Brandished 11 (38%) 12 (63%) 9 (38%) 32 (44%)
d. Dangerous Mental Health Issues3 10 (34%) 6 (32%) 13 (54%) 29 (40%)
e. Substance Use 8 (28%) 5 (26%) 6 (25%) 19 (26%)
f. Intent to obtain 7 (24%) 2 (11%) 6 (25%) 15 (21%)
g. Felony Crime 0 (0%) 6 (32%) 8 (33%) 14 (19%)
h. Force 1 (3%) 7 (37%) 6 (25%) 14 (19%)
i. DV Crime 0 (0%) 6 (32%) 7 (29%) 13 (18%)
j. Access 7 (24%) 2 (11%) 3 (13%) 12 (17%)
k. Recently Acquired 5 (17%) 2 (11%) 3 (13%) 10 (14%)
l. Violated PO 0 (0%) 2 (11%) 1 (4%) 3 (4%)
m. Stalking 0 (0%) 3 (16%) 0 (0%) 3 (4%)
n. Other 1 (3%) 3 (16%) 1 (4%) 5 (7%)
Petition Outcome Risk to Self only
N= 30 (40%)
Risk to Others only
N= 20 (27%)
Risk to Self and Others
N= 25 (33%)
Total
N= 75
Temp ERPO Granted 30 (100%) 20 (100%) 25 (100%) 75 (100%)
Full ERPO Granted 26 (87%) 18 (90%) 21 (84%) 65 (86%)
Full ERPO Denied 4 (13%) 2 (10%) 2 (8%) 8 (11%)
Case Dismissed 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 2 (8%) 2 (3%)
  1. 1In three cases (one each from risk to self, risk to others, and risk to self and others), the temporary ERPO was issued, but no reasonable cause was selected
  2. 2Reasonable causes for ERPO are:
  3. a. Violence: Respondent has recently committed or threatened violence against self or others, whether or not respondent had a firearm
  4. b. Pattern: Respondent has shown, within the past 12 months, a pattern of acts or threats of violence, which can include violent acts against self or others
  5. c. Brandished: Respondent has unlawfully or recklessly used, displayed, or brandished a firearm
  6. d. Dangerous mental health issues: Behaviors that present an imminent threat of harm to self or others
  7. e. Substance use: There is corroborative evidence of the respondent’s abuse of alcohol or controlled substances
  8. f. Intent to obtain: Respondent expressed intent to obtain a firearm(s)
  9. g. Felony crime: Respondent has been arrested for or convicted of a felony offence or violent crime
  10. h. Force: Respondent has a history of use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against another person
  11. i. DV crime: Respondent has been arrested for or convicted of a domestic violence crime
  12. j. Access: Respondent has access to someone else’s firearms
  13. k. Recently aquired: Respondent recently acquired a firearm
  14. l. Violated PO: Respondent violated a civil or criminal protection order, no-contact order or restraining order. m. Stalking: Respondent has a history of stalking another person
  15. n. Other
  16. 3In 2019, Washington amended its law to replace “dangerous mental health issues” with “behaviors that present an imminent threat of harm to self or others”