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Table 5 Correlations Between Selected Demographic Characteristics and (1) Percent of Dogs Who are Neutered/Spayed and (2) Percent of Dogs Which are Pit Bulls in New York City United Health Fund Districts: 2015–2017

From: The changing epidemiology of dog bite injuries in the United States, 2005–2018

Demographic Characteristic Percent of Dogs who are Neutered/Spayed Correlation Coefficient
(N = 62)
Percent of Dogs Which are Pit Bulls Correlation Coefficient
(N = 42)
Population density (per sq. mile) −0.01 − 0.19
Percent non-Hispanic white 0.82*** −0.72***
Percent non-Hispanic black −0.57*** 0.75***
Percent non-Hispanic Asian 0.35* −0.58***
Percent Hispanic −0.64*** 0.45**
Median family incomea 0.64*** −0.61***
Per capita incomea 0.57** −0.63***
Percent of families below the poverty level −0.72*** .58***
Percent of population 25 years of age and older who have a B.A. degree or more 0.67*** −0.67***
Percent of population with no health insurance −0.48** 0.25
Percent of insured population with public health insurance - 0.73** 0.58***
  1. aMedian family income and per capita income were calculated by computing the median values of these two variables for all zip codes within each UHF district
  2. Significance level: *p < .05
  3. ** p < 0.01
  4. *** p < 0.001
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