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Table 2 Odds ratios of health care utilization by provider specialty in Medicaid-insured children, from pre- to post-law period, 2008–2016

From: Sports and non-sports-related concussions among Medicaid-insured children: health care utilization before and after Ohio’s concussion law

  Primary Care Specialty Care Sports Medicine Other
OR (95% CI) P-Value OR (95% CI) P-Value OR (95% CI) P-Value OR (95% CI) P-Value
All concussions
 All visits 1.67 (1.55, 1.80) < 0.05 1.07 (0.98, 1.17) 0.108 2.79 (2.27, 3.42) < 0.05 1.13 (1.03, 1.25) < 0.05
 First visit 1.36 (1.23, 1.50) < 0.05 0.80 (0.72, 0.88) < 0.05 5.22 (2.44, 11.20) < 0.05 0.86 (0.75, 0.98) < 0.05
 Follow-up visits 1.49 (1.23, 1.80) < 0.05 1.49 (1.21, 1.85) < 0.05 2.06 (1.57, 2.70) < 0.05 1.12 (0.91, 1.39) 0.287
Sports-Related Concussions
 All visits 1.53 (1.34, 1.75) < 0.05 1.09 (0.94, 1.28) 0.265 2.33 (1.81, 2.98) < 0.05 0.80 (0.66, 0.99) < 0.05
 First visit 1.28 (1.06, 1.54) < 0.05 0.74 (0.62, 0.90) < 0.05 8.16 (2.88, 23.20) < 0.05 0.66 (0.50, 0.88) < 0.05
 Follow-up visits 1.20 (0.88, 1.63) 0.249 1.50 (1.06, 2.14) < 0.05 1.51 (1.04, 2.19) < 0.05 0.69 (0.47, 1.01) 0.059
Non-Sports-Related Concussions
 All visits 1.73 (1.58, 1.90) < 0.05 1.05 (0.95, 1.17) 0.333 3.48 (2.33, 5.19) < 0.05 1.27 (1.13, 1.42) < 0.05
 First visit 1.40 (1.24, 1.57) < 0.05 0.82 (0.72, 0.92) < 0.05 1.45 (0.38, 5.43) 0.586 0.93 (0.80, 1.09) 0.363
 Follow-up visits 1.70 (1.34, 2.17) < 0.05 1.49 (1.14, 1.95) < 0.05 3.16 (1.96, 5.09) < 0.05 1.38 (1.06, 1.79) < 0.05
  1. ED emergency department. ED is the referent for provider category. Specialty Care includes specialties such as neurology and radiology, excluding sports medicine. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. Multinominal Logistic regressions were used to model other type of health care provider versus the ED, adjusting for age and sex. The ORs are between Post-law and Pre-law
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