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Table 2 Associations between cellphone laws and calling while driving (CWD)a

From: Cellphone laws and teens’ calling while driving: analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2013, 2015, 2017, and 2019

Variables CWD b (95%CI) Prevalence Ratios (95%CI)
Crude Adjustedc
Overall 53 (51, 55)   
Cellphone laws
 No ban 57 (55, 60) Reference Reference
 Young driver ban 54 (51, 57) 0.94 (0.87, 1.00) 1.05 (1.00, 1.10)
 Concurrent bansd 44 (41, 47) 0.76 (0.71, 0.83) 0.81 (0.76, 0.86)
Age (Years)
 15 29 (23, 34) 0.72 (0.59, 0.88) 0.65 (0.56, 0.75)
 16 40 (38, 42) Reference Reference
 17 57 (54, 60) 1.42 (1.32, 1.52) 1.54 (1.47, 1.60)
  ≥ 18 63 (59, 67) 1.57 (1.46, 1.70) 1.68 (1.61, 1.77)
Sex
 Female 52 (50, 55) Reference Reference
 Male 53 (51, 55) 1.02 (0.96, 1.07) 1.01 (0.97, 1.04)
Race
 White 60 (58, 62) Reference Reference
 Black or African American 42 (37, 47) 0.70 (0.63, 0.77) 0.67 (0.61, 0.74)
 Hispanic/Latino 45 (41, 49) 0.75 (0.70, 0.81) 0.77 (0.72, 0.82)
 Othere 43 (38, 48) 0.71 (0.64, 0.79) 0.74 (0.69, 0.80)
Percent of students in rural areas   1.01 (1.01, 1.01) 1.01 (1.01, 1.01)
Year
 2013 57 (54, 59) Reference Reference
 2015 54 (52, 57) 0.93 (0.88, 0.97) 0.93 (0.88, 0.97)
 2017 50 (47, 54) 0.94 (0.89, 1.01) 0.94 (0.89, 1.01)
 2019 44 (43, 46) 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) 0.95 (0.90, 1.01)
  1. CI Confidence Interval;
  2. aData were from state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys in 14 states (2013, 2015, 2017 and 2019), the United States.
  3. bWeighted percentage of calling while driving (CWD): Percentage of students that reported talking on a phone while driving at least once during the 30 days before the survey (among students who drove).
  4. cModel adjusted for cellphone laws, age, sex, race, percent of students in rural area, and survey year.
  5. dConcurrent bans: both a handheld calling ban and a young driver ban.
  6. eOther included: American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and Multiple- Non-Hispanic/Latino
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