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Table 4 The annual percentage change (APC) of the publication ratio in gun violence studies from 1981 to 2018

From: Temporal trend of research related to gun violence from 1981 to 2018 in the United States: a bibliometric analysis

Lower year Upper year APC 95% confidence interval P-value
   Clinical sciences
1981 1996 20.86 (14.62, 27.43) <.0001
1996 2004 2.99 (-3.36, 9.76) 0.3500
2004 2008 -25.99 (-45.58, 0.65) 0.0546
2008 2018 17.65 (13.96, 21.46) <.0001
   Life sciences
1981 1998 14.76 (9.50, 20.28) <.0001
1998 2012 -4.99 (-8.23, -1.64) 0.0052
2012 2018 26.10 (16.77, 36.17) <.0001
   Social behavior sciences
1981 1984 -33.04 (-58.75, 8.70) 0.1009
1984 2001 12.44 (9.33, 15.64) <.0001
2001 2011 -9.77 (-13.45, -5.93) <.0001
2011 2018 16.96 (11.35, 22.85) <.0001
   Combined
1981 1984 -31.77 (-61.66, 21.42) 0.1837
1984 1996 17.76 (11.14, 24.76) <.0001
1996 2002 2.95 (-7.55, 14.63) 0.5825
2002 2011 -8.37 (-12.84, -3.68) 0.0014
2011 2018 20.44 (15.06, 26.07) <.0001