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Table 2 Panel Models of Violent Injury Incidence per 1000, 2010–2014

From: Criminal punishment and violent injury in Minnesota

  (1) (2) (3)
LFO per Capita 0.0005 (−0.009|0.010)   
Confinement Load   0.085 (−0.002|0.172)  
Probation Load    0.044 (0.019|0.069)
Percent Hispanic −0.201 (− 0.452|0.049) −0.200 (− 0.447|0.048) −0.154 (− 0.400|0.091)
Percent Black − 0.744 (−1.026|-0.461) −0.722 (−1.004|-0.441) −0.710 (− 0.988|-0.432)
Percent Other − 0.069 (− 0.233|0.096) −0.067 (− 0.230|0.096) −0.074 (− 0.235|0.088)
Percent Native American −1.739 (−2.002|-1.477) −1.737 (− 1.996|-1.478) −1.611 (− 1.878|-1.345)
Percent Biracial −0.596 (− 0.816|-0.375) −0.577 (− 0.796|-0.359) −0.538 (− 0.755|-0.320)
Percent Asian 0.003 (− 0.308|0.313) 0.005 (− 0.303|0.314) 0.059 (− 0.248|0.365)
Percent HPI −0.803 (− 1.589|-0.016) −0.795 (− 1.577|-0.013) −0.824 (− 1.596|-0.052)
Marriage Rate − 0.151 (− 0.291|-0.012) −0.159 (− 0.298|-0.020) −0.159 (− 0.296|-0.022)
Median Age − 0.026 (− 0.189|0.137) −0.035 (− 0.196|0.127) −0.029 (− 0.188|0.130)
Percent SSI/SNAP − 0.177 (− 0.300|-0.053) −0.169 (− 0.292|-0.046) −0.174 (− 0.295|-0.053)
Percent Bachelor’s Degree −0.117 (− 0.260|0.025) −0.110 (− 0.250|0.030) −0.079 (− 0.219|0.061)
Percent Male 0.106 (− 0.143|0.356) 0.098 (− 0.151|0.346) 0.108 (− 0.137|0.353)
Percent No Work 0.041 (− 0.055|0.137) 0.037 (− 0.058|0.133) 0.045 (− 0.050|0.139)
County FE Yes Yes Yes
Year FE Yes Yes Yes
Observations 435 435 435
R2 0.379 0.385 0.400
  1. 95% Confidence Intervals in parentheses