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Table 1 Patient Demographics and Injury Characteristics by Race

From: US children of minority race are less likely to be admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after traumatic injury, a retrospective analysis of a single pediatric trauma center

  Entire Cohort n = 654 Minority Children n = 361 White Children n = 293 p-value
Age (years)* 8.0 [4.0–13.0] 8.4 [4.0–13.0] 8.0 [3.5–12.5] p = 0.027
Gender (male) 434 (66.4%) 193 (65.9%) 241 (66.8%) p = 0.876
Estimated Household Income Below Poverty Level (yes) 165 (25.3%) 152 (42.1%) 13 (4.4%) p < 0.001
Trauma Activation (full) 102 (15.6%) 67 (18.6%) 35 (11.9%) p = 0.027
Trauma Type     p < 0.001
 Blunt 589 (90.1%) 308 (85.3%) 281 (95.9%)  
 Penetrating 62 (9.5%) 50 (13.9%) 12 (4.1%)  
 Thermal 3 (0.5%) 3 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%)  
Intentional Trauma (yes) 77 (11.8%) 64 (17.7%) 13 (4.4%) p < 0.001
ISS# 4 [1–9] 2 [1–9] 5 [1–10] p < 0.001
GCS$ 15 [15–15] 15 [15–15] 15 [15–15] p = 0.917
Mechanism of Injury^     p < 0.001
 Pedestrian** 172 (26.3%) 133 (36.9%) 39 (13.3%)  
 Motor Vehicle Accident 125 (19.1%) 65 (18.0%) 60 (20.5%)  
 Fall (estimated < 10 ft)** 82 (12.5%) 27 (7.5%) 55 (18.8%)  
 Gunshot Wound** 57 (8.7%) 50 (13.9%) 7 (2.4%)  
 Fall (estimated > 10 ft) 54 (8.3%) 31 (8.6%) 23 (7.8%)  
 Recreational Vehicle 50 (7.6%) 6 (1.7%) 44 (15.0%)  
 Sports** 48 (7.3%) 14 (3.9%) 34 (11.6%)  
 Assault 29 (4.4%) 19 (5.3%) 10 (3.4%)  
 Other 31 (4.7%) 12 (3.3%) 19 (6.5%)  
  1. Abbreviations and Definitions: ISS injury severity score, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, “Minority” defined as Black (n = 338), Hispanic ethnicity (n = 10), Native American (n = 1) or “other” (n = 12) race; “Below Poverty Level” defined as living in a ZIP code where the estimated median annual household income for a family of 4 is less than the 2014 federal poverty level (<$23,850); “Other” mechanism of injury included 9 subjects injured by a horse, 8 injured with a projectile (excluding bullets), 6 stabbing injuries, 5 crush injuries, 2 burn injuries, and 1 dog bite; *2 subjects with missing age data; #6 subjects with unknown ISS; $6 subjects with unknown GCS; ^6 subjects with unknown injury mechanism; **mechanism of injury categories found to be different (p < 0.05) in post-hoc analyses; data presented as median [interquartile range] or n (%)