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Table 2 Patient Disposition, Mortality, Hospital Utilization and PICU Utilization by Race

From: US children of minority race are less likely to be admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after traumatic injury, a retrospective analysis of a single pediatric trauma center

Patient Disposition* and Mortality
  Entire Cohort n = 654 Minority Children n = 361 White Children n = 293 p-value
Hospital Admission 576 (88.1%) 303 (83.9%) 273 (93.2%) p < 0.001
Discharged to Home from ED 67 (10.2%) 49 (13.6%) 18 (6.1%) p = 0.007
Died in the ED 9 (1.4%) 8 (2.2%) 1 (0.3%) p = 0.087
Died in the Hospital 9 (1.4%) 6 (1.7%) 3 (1.0%) p = 0.719
Overall Mortality 18 (2.8%) 14 (3.9%) 4 (1.4%) p = 0.087
Hospital Utilization
  Hospital Cohort n = 576 Minority Children n = 303 White Children n = 273  
Hospital LOS (days)# 1.0 [1.0–3.0] 1.0 [1.0–2.3] 2.0 [1.0–3.0] p = 0.002
General Care Floor Admission for Observation (yes) 315 (54.7%) 190 (62.7%) 125 (45.8%)  
Operative Procedure$ 128 (22.2%) 68 (22.4%) 60 (22.0%) p = 0.973
Admitted to PICU setting 195 (33.9%) 79 (26.1%) 116 (42.5%) p < 0.001
PICU Utilization and Injury Characteristics
  PICU Cohort n = 195 Minority Children n = 79 White Children n = 116  
PICU LOS (days) 1.0 [0.7–2.5] 1.4 [0.7–3.9] 0.9 [0.7–1.9] p = 0.032
Hospital LOS (days)** 3.0 [2.0–7.0] 4.0 [2.0–10.0] 3.0 [2.0–5.0] p = 0.053
ISS in PICU Patients 9 [5.0–16.0] 10.0 [5.0–19.0] 9.0 [5.0–14.0] p = 0.045
 Mild Injury (ISS < 8) 72 (36.9%) 24 (30.4%) 48 (41.4%) p = 0.158
 Moderate Injury (ISS 8–10) 79 (40.5%) 29 (36.7%) 50 (43.1%) p = 0.457
 Severe Injury (ISS > 16) 44 (22.6%) 26 (32.9%) 18 (15.5%) p = 0.007
Reason for PICU Admission     p = 0.007
 At Risk for Organ Failure 98 (50.3%) 30 (38.0%) 68 (58.7%)  
 Organ Failure 97 (50.0%) 49 (62.0%) 48 (41.4%)  
  1. Abbreviations and Definitions: PICU pediatric intensive care unit, ED emergency department, LOS length of stay, ISS injury severity score; “Minority” defined as Black, Hispanic ethnicity, Native American, or “other” race; “operative procedure” included subjects requiring a surgical procedure in the operating room at any point during the hospitalization; “organ failure” defined as encephalopathy evidenced by GCS < 15 or a trauma-associated seizure; a neurologic injury requiring a neurosurgical procedure; respiratory failure requiring oxygen support unable to be provided on a general care floor; liver failure, renal failure, or pancreatic failure requiring surgical intervention; compartment syndrome requiring surgical intervention, or hemorrhagic shock requiring medical or surgical intervention; *2 subjects transferred to different institution from the ED for care; #2 subjects with missing LOS data; $12 patients with multiple procedures; **hospital LOS for patients requiring PICU care; data are presented as median [interquartile range] or n (%)