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Table 2 Attitudes toward handheld and hands-free cellphone use while driving behaviors

From: Driving contradictions: behaviors and attitudes regarding handheld and hands-free cellphone use while driving among young drivers

  Handhelda CUWDb Behaviors Hands-freec CUWD Behaviors  
Attitudesd N (%e) Unlikely Neutral Likely Unlikely Neutral Likely P-valuef
Being in a crash
 Talking on the phone 32 (52) 6 (10) 24 (39) 46 (74) 4 (7) 12 (19) 0.0001
 Sending messagesg 14 (23) 3 (5) 45 (73) 37 (60) 5 (8) 20 (32) < 0.0001
 Reading messages 16 (26) 3 (5) 43 (69) 38 (61) 8 (13) 16 (26) < 0.0001
Getting a traffic ticket
 Talking on the phone 37 (60) 8 (13) 17 (27) 50 (81) 4 (7) 8 (13) < 0.0001
 Sending messages 21 (34) 1 (2) 40 (65) 50 (81) 4 (7) 8 (13) < 0.0001
 Reading messages 26 (42) 3 (5) 33 (53) 50 (81) 2 (3) 10 (16) < 0.0001
  No Maybe Yes No Maybe Yes  
Negatively affect driving ability
 Talking on the phone 13 (21) 15 (24) 34 (55) 35 (57) 18 (29) 9 (15) 0.0619
 Sending messages 0 (0) 6 (10) 56 (90) 13 (21) 35 (57) 14 (23) 0.0161
 Reading messages 3 (5) 16 (26) 43 (69) 17 (27) 32 (52) 13 (21) 0.4203
  1. aHandheld use was defined as physically holding the phone
  2. bCellphone use while driving (CUWD)
  3. cHands-free use was defined as using devices such as Bluetooth and speaker phone so there is no physical interaction between the driver and their phone when engaging in the aforementioned behaviors
  4. dParticipants were questioned about their attitudes relating to the impact of cellphone use while driving (CUWD) behaviors on the following three outcomes: being in a crash, getting a traffic ticket, and negatively affecting their driving ability
  5. eRow percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding
  6. fP-value from the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test comparing each handheld CUWD behavior to its hands-free variant, bolded when < 0.05
  7. gMessages were defined as text or email messages