Skip to main content

Table 1 National hospital admissions for children up to three years, 1998–2014 (N = 66,854), patient- and hospital-level descriptive statistics, by type of abuse

From: Trends in shaken baby syndrome diagnosis codes among young children hospitalized for abuse

Variable Possible SBS
N (%)
Confirmed SBS
N (%)
Chi-square Total SBS
N (%)
Non-SBS Abuse
N (%)
Chi-square
4209 (29.4) 10,083 (70.6) P value 14,292 (21.4) 52,562 (79.2) P value
Rates (per 100,00 population)
 Total rate of abuse 1.6 (± 0.1) 3.8 (± 0.3) 4.5 (± 0.3) 19.6 (± 1.0)
Rate of abuse per year
 1998 0.6 (± 0.2) 3.6 (± 0.6) 4.1 (± 0.7) 17.8 (± 2.5)
 1999 1.1 (± 0.3) 6.4 (± 1.0) 7.5 (± 1.2) 20.1 (± 2.3)
 2000 0.6 (± 0.2) 4.6 (± 0.8) 5.2 (± 0.9) 16.6 (± 2.0)
 2001 1.0 (± 0.3) 4.5 (± 0.8) 5.5 (± 1.1) 19.1 (± 3.1)
 2002 0.7 (± 0.2) 4.3 (± 0.8) 5.0 (± 0.9) 17.5 (± 2.3)
 2003 1.1 (± 0.3) 5.0 (± 0.8) 6.1 (± 1.0) 18.2 (± 2.6)
 2004 1.3 (± 0.4) 4.8 (± 0.9) 6.1 (± 1.2) 18.1 (± 2.7)
 2005 2.0 (± 0.6) 5.1 (± 0.9) 7.1 (± 1.3) 22.7 (± 3.6)
 2006 1.3 (± 0.4) 4.5 (± 0.8) 5.9 (± 1.0) 17.9 (± 2.5)
 2007 2.0 (± 0.6) 3.8 (± 0.7) 5.8 (± 1.1) 18.7 (± 3.5)
 2008 1.2 (± 0.4) 3.8 (± 0.6) 5.0 (± 0.9) 17.3 (± 2.9)
 2009 1.9 (± 0.5) 3.1 (± 0.6) 5.0 (± 1.0) 17.3 (± 2.8)
 2010 1.9 (± 0.5) 3.6 (± 0.6) 5.6 (± 0.9) 25.8 (± 4.2)
 2011 2.6 (± 0.7) 1.5 (± 0.3) 4.1 (± 0.9) 18.8 (± 3.8)
 2012 2.3 (± 0.4) 2.2 (± 0.3) 4.4 (± 0.5) 21.4 (± 2.0)
 2013 2.5 (± 0.4) 2.0 (± 0.3) 4.5 (± 0.5) 23.0 (± 2.0)
 2014 2.4 (± 0.4) 1.3 (± 0.2) 3.7 (± 0.4) 22.5 (± 2.0)
Patient characteristics
 Age
   < 1 2744 (65.2) 8162 (80.9) <  0.001 10,906 (76.3) 33,428 (63.6) <  0.001
  1 700 (16.6) 1160 (11.5)   1860 (13) 8705 (16.6)  
  2/3 765 (18.2) 761 (7.5)   1526 (10.7) 10,429 (19.8)  
 Hospital mortality
  Yes 571 (13.6) 1271 (8.9) 0.467 1842 (12.9) 1597 (3.0) <  0.001
  No 3637 (86.4) 8812 (61.7)   12,450 (87.1) 50,964 (97.0)  
 Sex
  Female 1530 (36.4) 4067 (40.3) 0.074 5597 (39.2) 22,486 (42.8) 0.007
  Male 2679 (63.6) 6016 (59.7)   8695 (60.8) 30,075 (57.2)  
 Race
  Asian or Pacific Islander 63 (1.5) 260 (2.6) 0.240 323 (2.3) 467 (0.9) <  0.001
  Black 853 (20.3) 1992 (19.8)   2845 (19.9) 12,774 (24.3)  
  Hispanic 718 (17.1) 1614 (16)   2332 (16.3) 9261 (17.6)  
  Native American 58 (1.4) 84 (0.8)   142 (1) 500 (1)  
  Other 310 (7.4) 574 (5.7)   884 (6.2) 2632 (5)  
  White 2206 (52.4) 5559 (55.1)   7765 (54.3) 26,928 (51.2)  
 Income
  1st Quartile 1262 (30) 2558 (25.4) 0.001 3820 (26.7) 18,216 (34.7) <  0.001
  2nd Quartile 1349 (32.1) 2906 (28.8)   4255 (29.8) 15,490 (29.5)  
  3rd Quartile 1037 (24.6) 2572 (25.5)   3609 (25.3) 11,703 (22.3)  
  4th Quartile 560 (13.3) 2047 (20.3)   2607 (18.2) 7153 (13.6)  
Hospital characteristics
 Hospital type (since 2008)
  Government, nonfederal 331 (14.4) 413 (14.9) 0.067 744 (15.9) 3641 (14.6) 0.643
  Private, investor-owned 98 (4.3) 243 (8.7)   341 (6.7) 1541 (6.7)  
  Private, not-for-profit 1874 (81.4) 2123 (76.4)   3997 (77.4) 17,700 (78.6)  
 Hospital size (bed count)
  Large 2380 (57.4) 6704 (66.7) 0.008 9084 (64.0) 32,545 (62.5) 0.479
  Medium 1111 (26.8) 1944 (19.3)   3055 (21.5) 12,063 (23.2)  
  Small 656 (15.8) 1398 (13.9)   2054 (14.5) 7455 (14.3)  
 Hospital location / teaching
  Rural 45 (1.1) 328 (3.3) 0.005 373 (2.6) 3294 (6.3) <  0.001
  Urban non-teaching 263 (6.2) 1258 (12.5)   1521 (10.6) 6808 (13)  
  Urban teaching 3901 (92.7) 8497 (84.3)   12,398 (86.7) 42,460 (80.8)  
 Hospital region
  Midwest 1210 (28.7) 2707 (26.8) 0.128 3917 (27.4) 13,928 (26.5) 0.204
  Northeast 436 (10.4) 1518 (15.1)   1954 (13.7) 8459 (16.1)  
  South 1675 (39.8) 4177 (41.4)   5852 (40.9) 20,144 (38.3)  
  West 888 (21.1) 1681 (16.7)   2569 (18) 10,029 (19.1)